Content of MSDS

What Is MSDS: The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a detailed information bulletin prepared by the manufacturer or importer or user of a chemical.

 MSDS Helps Us:
  • To know about potential hazardous effects of chemicals
  • To provide relevant information so as to prevent the occurrence of work related illness and injuries
  • To establish safe work practices
  • To effectively control emergencies
Factories Act: Requirement: Rule 61 (SB) B of the Factories act indicates that  the occupier of every factory has to obtain or develop information in the form of material safety data sheet (MSDS) for all chemicals handled in the manufacture, transportation and storage in the factory. 
Available Information in MSDS :
  • Section 1   - Product and Company Identification
  • Section 2   - Composition/Information on Ingredients
  • Section 3   - Hazards Identification Including Emergency Overview
  • Section 4   - First Aid Measures
  • Section 5   - Fire Fighting Measures
  • Section 5   - Accidental Release Measures
  • Section 7   - Handling and Storage
  • Section 8   - Exposure Controls & Personal Protection
  • Section 9   - Physical & Chemical Properties
  • Section 10 - Stability & Reactivity Data
  • Section 11 - Toxicological Information
  • Section 12 - Ecological Information
  • Section 13 - Disposal Considerations
  • Section 14 - Transport Information
  • Section 15 - Regulatory Information
  • Section 16 - Other Information

Section-1: Product and Company Identification

  • Product Name: A name used to identify a commercial product or service, which may or may not be registered as a trademark. Also called brand name.
  • Synonyms: A chemical or material having the other name(s). Example: Methyl Alcohol - Synonym: Methanol
  • CAS No.: CAS stands for “Chemical Abstract Service”. A CAS Registry Number is a Registered Trademark of the American Chemical Society. A CAS registry number is a unique numerical identifier for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys and does not have any chemical significance.                                                                                           Ex. DMS 77-78-1 ,    EDC - 107-06-2 , TC 7550-45-0
  • Molecular Weight:                                                                                                                            The molecular weight of a compound is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in the molecules that form these compounds.                                                                                             Example: The molecular weight of the Methyl Alcohol is the sum of the atomic weights of the 1 carbon atom, 4 hydrogen atoms, and 1oxygen atom in a CH3OH molecule

          1 C atom     = 1(12.011)   amu  =
12.011   amu
          4 H atoms   = 4(1.0079)   amu  =
  4.0316 amu
          1 O atom     = 1(15.9994) amu  =
15.9994 amu

32.042   amu
  • Chemical Formula:                                                                                                                              A combination of symbols used to express the chemical composition of a substance.

                     Example: Structural formulas for Methanol

       HCOH           CH3OH
         Complete          Abbreviated
  • Contact Information:

Address of the Manufacturer (or) Supplier (or) In-house Emergency Contact information.
  • Hazard Class Symbol:

Hazard symbols are recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials. The use of hazard symbols is often regulated by law and directed by standards organizations. Hazard symbols may appear with different colors, backgrounds, borders and supplemental information in order to signify the type of hazard.

Hazard Classification of Chemicals
Other Hazard Symbols:
Other Hazard Symbols
NFPA Diamond

Section-2:Composition/ Information on Ingredients

  • CAS No.:

          Described above (Section-1).
  • Chemical Name:

           The name of a chemical compound that shows the names of each of its elements or sub         compounds.
           Example: The chemical name of aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid.
  • Percentage of Material:

          Describes the percent composition of the substance, listing chemicals present in the mixture.

Section-3: Hazards Identification

  Emergency Overview

  • Target Organs:  Digestive tract, Kidneys, Lungs, Cardiac, Blood etc…
  • Physical Hazards:  Flammability, Explosiveness, Corrosiveness etc…
  • Routes of Entry:      •Inhalation  :Respiratory Tract
                                             •Ingestion  : Digestive Tract
                                             •Absorption  : Through Skin
                                             •Injection  : Through Blood
  • Potential health Effects: Irritation/ Allergetic/ other harmful effects of Eye, Skin, Ingestion and Inhalation.

Section-4: First Aid Measures

  • Eyes: WATER!.... WATER!!.... WATER!!!....

             Flush with water for at least 15 minutes.
  • Skin: WATER!... WATER!!... WATER!!!...

            Wash with water under shower for at least 15-20mnts.
  • Inhalation : AIR!... AIR!!... AIR!!!...

             Move the victim into fresh air. Give artificial breathing if required.
             (Ambubag/ Medical Oxygen/ Mouth to Mouth) 
  • Ingestion:

            First send the victim to OHC. Use Anti-dotes if available.
            Get emergency medical assistance.
  • Notes to physician:

             Instructions for treatment available here (Send MSDS along with victim).

Section-5: Fire Fighting Measures

  • Flash point: minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid.

           This value is the most important indicator of flammability!
            Ex: Gasoline=-45F(-42.8); Benzene =12F (-11C); Kerosene =100-162F(37.8-72.2C)
<           <23 deg C    --- Class A
                  23 to 65 deg C    --- Class B
                  65 to 93 deg C    --- Class C
  •        Auto Ignition Temperature: The temperature at which a material (solid, liquid, or gas) will self ignite and sustain combustion in air without an external spark or flame.

                          Example: Auto ignition point of selected substances
                            White phosphorus: 34°C (93°F) ;
                            Carbon disulfide: 90°C (212°F);
                            Diethyl ether: 170°C (338°F);
                            Diesel: 210°C (410°F);
                            Paper: 450°C (842°F);
                            Gasoline (Petrol): 246°C (475°F);
                            Magnesium: 473°C (883°F);
                            Butane: 500°C (900°F);
                            Hydrogen: 571°C (1060°F)  
  • Explosive/ Flammability range: Range between LEL and UEL where it can result in fire or explosion if ignition source is available.
  • Lower explosive limit (LEL):It is the lowest concentration of vapor (%) in air at and above (up to UEL) which it can result in fire/ explosion in the presence of a source of ignition
  • Upper explosive limit (UEL): It is the highest concentration of vapor (%) in air at and below (up to LEL) which it can result in fire/ explosion in the presence of a source of ignition

Flammability Range
  • Hazardous Combustion products:

Hazardous combustion products are chemicals which may be formed when a material burns. These chemicals may be toxic, flammable or have other hazards. The chemicals released and their amounts vary, depending upon conditions such as the temperature and the amount of air (or more specifically, oxygen) available. The combustion chemicals may be quite different from those formed by heating the same material during processing (thermal decomposition products). It is important to know which chemicals are formed by hazardous combustion in order to plan the response to a fire involving the material.
  • Extinguishing media:

It indicates the suitable firefighting equipment should be used incase this chemical fire.
  • Firefighting protective equipment and instructions:        This indicates what are precautions to be taken by firefighters and which PPE should be used during this chemicals Fire.

Section-6: Accidental Release Measures

Spill Response

  • Small Spill 

            How to dilute and mop-up/ absorb the spilled material.
            How to collect the spilled material and safe disposal of the same.
  • Large Spill 

            Instructions to
            Isolate the area
           Contain the spill
           Clean up the spill
           Dispose the wastes collected
           Personnel Safety

Section-7: Handling and Storage

  • Handling:

               Ventilation: Some chemicals should be handled in well-ventilated areas.
               Illumination: Some chemicals should be stored under appropriate Illumination. In some chemicals should not be                                           exposed to light.
               Example: Light can accelerate the peroxide formation in the Peroxide forming hazard chemicals.
                Atmosphere: Some Chemicals should be handled under inert atmospheres only.
              Example: Sodium should be handled under Nitrogen and Lithium should be handled under Organ atmospheres. 
               Handling Devices:  Non-sparking tools etc… will be recommended here.
                 Personal Protective Equipment:  Appropriate PPE should be recommended here.

  • Storage:

              Containers to be used: Containers for storage will be recommended here.
           Example: Metal containers should be used for flammable chemicals.
              Incompatibility: Here incompatible chemicals or chemical groups of the particular chemical available.
           Example: Sulfuric acid is incompatible with Water. Oxidizing substances are incompatibles with Flammable                                 materials.
             Ambient/ Controlled temperature conditions: The storage condition requirement will be available here. Some                                       chemicals should be stored in Controlled room temperature and some chemicals are in ambient                                                   temperature. Ambient Temperature: Above 250C (Room temperature)
                                 Controlled Room temperature: Below 250C (Reclassified as Cold, Cool etc…)
               Surroundings: Ignition sources or any other avoidable conditions information available here.

Section-8: Exposure Controls & Personal Protection

Airborne Exposure Limits
Threshold limit value (TLV): It is the maximum concentration of a chemical in air (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) to which a person can be exposed for a certain period without any adverse health effects.
Classifies TLV in three ways
(1)TLV-TWAtime weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour workweek.

(2)TLV-STELshort term exposure limit, or maximum concentration of a substance (a) for a continuous 15-minute exposure period, (b) for maximum of 4 such periods per day, (c) with at least one 60-minute exposure-free period between two exposure periods, and (d) provided the daily TLV-TWA is met.

(1)TLV-Cceiling exposure limit or maximum exposure concentration that should not be exceeded under any circumstance, while meeting the daily TLV-TWA.

Engineering Controls:
    This section recommends the engineering controls, the first and best strategy is to control the hazard at its source.
   The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards.
  Engineering controls can be simple in some cases. They are based on the following principles:
     •If feasible, design the facility, equipment, or process to remove the hazard or substitute something that is not hazardous.
     •If removal is not feasible, enclose the hazard to prevent exposure in normal operations.
   •Where complete enclosure is not feasible, establish barriers or local ventilation to reduce exposure to the hazard in normal operations.

Personal protective Equipment:
    This section recommends the Personal protective equipment (PPE) like protective clothinghelmetsgoggles, Safety Footwear, RPE should be used against the hazards associated with this chemical.
     The use of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels.

Section-9: Physical & Chemical Properties

   Physical State:
      It indicates that the material is Solid/ Semisolid/ Liquid/ Gas etc…
      It indicates that the form of material is powder/ crystals/ granules/ Flakes etc…
      It indicates the color of the material.
      It indicates what the smell gives off this material.
   Odor Threshold:
      An odor threshold is the lowest airborne concentration that can be detected by a population of individuals.
      The sense that distinguishes the sweet, sour, salty, and bitter qualities of dissolved substances in contact with the taste buds on the tongue.
      Very Important Note: Don’t test any chemical to know its taste. DANGER!
      The ability of a solid, liquid, gas or vapor to dissolve in water and other solvents. Also, the ability of one material to blend uniformly with another (solid in liquid, liquid in liquid, etc..). Expressed as soluble, slightly soluble or non-soluble.
        Examples: Isopropyl Alcohol, Ethanol.
        Solubility is important because: Solubility in water is an indicator of how easily a substance can pass into the body from the digestive tract and the lungs and tells us where we will find it in the body after it is absorbed.
   Specific gravity:
       The weight of a material as compared to an equal volume of water.
       Water Specific Gravity = 1
       If # < 1, the material will float
       If # > 1, the material will sink
       Examples: Water = 1, Gasoline = 0.8
       Specific Gravity is important because…
       • If the material should get in to water- such as mix with storm water, specific gravity will determine how to get it before it reaches the water system. 
pH is a logarithmic scale

    pH of Some Common Solutions
• Hydrochloric Acid 4%  : 0
• Gastric Juices  : 1.6-1.8
• Lemon Juice  : 2.3
• Vinegar  : 2.4-3.4
• Soft Drinks  : 2.0-4.0
• Milk  : 6.3-6.6
• Blood  : 7.35-7.45
• Milk of Magnesia  : 10.5
• Sodium Hydroxide  : 13.0

               Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow.
      Boiling point: 
               The temperature at which the material’s vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure.
    Example: Water = 212F(100C); Propane = 44F(6.67C); Butane = 31F(-0.56C)
      Melting point: 
               The temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state upon heating.
    Examples: Water (ice) = 32F(0C); Acetic Acid = 62F(16.7C)
       Freezing point:
               The temperature at which a liquid substance changes to a solid state upon cooling.
    Examples: Water (ice) = 32F(0C); Acetic Acid = 62F(16.7C)

       Decomposition Temperature:
               The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance chemically decomposes.
     Methanol decomposes at above 230°C, and separate as:
                             CH3OH = CO + 2H2
     Water, when heated to well over 2000°C, decomposes to its constituent elements   
                             2 H2O → 2 H2 + O2
       Vapor density:
                The weight of a gas or vapor compared to the weight of an equal volume of air at the same pressure and                temperature.
                Air Vapor Density = 1,
                If #<1, the material is lighter than air and may rise
                If #>1, the material is heavier than air and may stay low to the ground
     Examples: Air = 1, Propane =1.6, Hydrogen = 0.1,  Gasoline = 3.0 - 4.0
     Based on this, detection and ventilation arrangements have to be made. 
        Vapor pressure:
             The pressure exerted by a  saturated vapor above it’s own liquid. Reported in millimeters of mercury (Hg) or pounds   per square inch (psig or psia). Test temperature is usually 100F (38C).
       Examples: Acetone = 184 mm Hg (20C), Isopropyl Alcohol = 33 mm Hg (20C)
        Flammable liquids having high vapor pressures are dangerous and require special precautions while storing and handling.
          Generally a chemical with low boiling point have high vapor pressure and high evaporation rate. Thus this information is useful to know how quickly a material becomes air borne.
             Volatility is the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure. At a    given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower     vapor pressure.
    Evaporation rate (volatility):
          It is the rate at which a material vaporizes from its solid or liquid state when compared to a known material’s          vaporization rate.
           The known reference material is n-butyl acetate whose vaporization rate is 1.0
            Based on evaporation rate, chemicals can be classified as
            Fast Evaporating: > 3.0        eg., Acetone- 5.6, Hexane- 8.3
            Medium Evaporating: 0.8 to 3.0 eg., MIBK–1.6, Ethanol- 1.4
            Slow Evaporating: < 0.8        eg., n-Butyl Alcohol- 0.4 

Section-10: Stability and Reactivity

           Chemical stability:  The ability of a chemical substance to remain unchanged.

           Reactivity:  It is tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction.

          Incompatibles: These are substances, which are reactive with each other. Incompatibles may be stable on their own, but when mixed with the chemical, may react vigorously. (Storage, MOC, Ventillation, Floor condition etc)

           Hazardous reaction products: Hazardous products result from reaction of a chemical with incompatible materials

           Hazardous Polymerization: A chemical reaction that releases large and potentially dangerous amount of heat.

           Conditions to Avoid: This indicates the intolerable conditions during storage or handling of this chemical.

Section-11: Toxicological Information

         Defines the medical signs and symptoms that may be encountered with normal exposure or overexposure to the     material or its components.
  •       Acute Effect:
 An adverse effect on a human or animal body resulting from a single exposure with symptoms developing almost immediately or shortly after exposure.
-Corrosive:  A liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue.
-Irritation:  An inflammatory response or reaction of the eye, skin or respiratory system.
-Allergic sensitization:  A process whereby on first exposure a substance causes little or no reaction, but upon repeated exposure may cause a marked adverse response.
  •       Chronic Effect: 
  An adverse effect on a human or animal body resulting from prolonged or repeated exposure with symptoms that develop slowly over a long period of time.
-Epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. 
-Carcinogen:  A substance or agent capable of causing or producing cancer in humans or animals.
            IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 
               Class 1 -- Known human carcinogen Ex.Benzene
               Class 2A -- Probable human carcinogen
               Class 2B -- Possible human carcinogen
                        Ex.CCl4,DMF,1,4 Dioxin, Chloroform
               Class 3 -- Not classifiable for human carcinogenicity
               Class 4 -- Probably not carcinogenic to humans


           A substance or agent capable of altering genetic material in a living organism.


          A substance or agent to which exposure to a pregnant female can result in malformations to the skeleton or soft tissue of the fetus.

  - Reproductive Effects:

         Any effect of chemicals that would interfere with reproductive ability or capacity. This may include, but not be limited to alterations to the female and male reproductive system.

 - Neurotoxicity:

         Adverse effects on the structure or function of the central and/ or peripheral nervous system caused by exposure to a toxic chemical, symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of sensation and motor
         control, tremors, cognitive alterations, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction.

 - LD50   (Lethal dose 50):

             The single dose of a substance that causes the death of 50% of an animal population (with in 14 days) from exposure to the substance by any route  other than inhalation. It is expressed as milligrams  or grams of material per kilogram of animal weight.

         -LC50 (Lethal concentration 50):

              The concentration of a material in air that is expected  to kill 50% of an animal population (with in 14 days) when administered as a single exposure inhalation in an hour. it is expressed as ppm for gases and vapors and  micrograms per liter of air or mg/m3 of air for dusts and mists. 

       -LDLO (Lethal Dose Low): 

            The lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route other than inhalation reported to have caused death in humans or animals.

      - LCLO (Lethal Concentration Low):

                 The lowest concentration of a substance in air that has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals.

      - IDLH(Immediately dangerous to life and health):

                IDLH is an acronym for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health, and is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment."
           Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
            This value is normally referred to in respirator selection.

Section-12: Ecological Information

  -  Ecotoxicity:  

                          Ecotoxicology is the study of how chemicals affect the environment and the organisms living in it. 

  - BOD5 and COD:

                     Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) are measurements commonly used to determine water quality.

  - Products of Biodegradation:

                   Biodegradation or biotic degradation or biotic decomposition is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria or other biological means.

  -Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation:

                           It indicates that the product itself and its products of degradation is toxic or not toxic.

  -Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation

Section-13: Disposal Considerations

        Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations.

      All employees are suggested to follow the Company’s Waste management Procedures in disposing Effluents and Hazardous wastes.

Section-14: Transport Information

Shipping Name
Hazard Class
UN Number
Packing Group
Additional information
The above information available in this section for Road transport (ADR/RID), Marine transport (IMDG) and Air transport (IATA) Classifications.

            ADR/RID  : Agreement on Dangerous Goods by Road

            RID  : International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail

            IMDG  : International Maritime Dangerous Goods   IATA  : International air transport Association 

Proper Shipping Name:

The proper shipping name for a particular substance is the name used to describe that substance during transport.
The proper shipping name for ethanol is “Ethanol”, but the proper shipping name for a less common substance will be a generic description, e.g. “Flammable Liquid n.o.s.” (not otherwise specified).
In this case, the chemical name of the substance would be included in brackets following the generic description.

Hazard Class:

Hazard Class Number and Symbol will be given here as said in the Section-1 of this Bulletin. 

UN Number:

UN stands for United Nations. UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous substances, and articles (such as explosives, flammable liquids, toxic substances, etc.) in the framework of international transport. Some hazardous substances have their own UN numbers (e.g. Acryl Amide has UN2074).

Packing Group:

The Packing Group for a chemical indicates the degree of hazard associated with its transportation.
              Packing Group I - Great Danger
                        Packing Group II - Medium Danger
                        Packing Group III - Minor Danger

Additional information:

        In any will be available here.

Section-15: Regulatory Information 

Regulatory/ Statutory information:

US Federal/ European or International Regulations/ Canada WHMIS/ OSHA or any other local or federal regulations will be available here.

Precautionary Labeling:

This indicates the basic label requirements for the material container

Safety and Risk Phrases:

Safety Phrases Examples

Keep locked up
Keep out of the reach of children
Keep in a cool place

Risk Phrases Examples

Explosive when dry
Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition

Hazard & Precautionary Statements:

Hazard Statements examples

Explosive; mass explosion hazard
Explosive; severe projection hazard
Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard

Precautionary Statements examples

Handle under inert gas
Protect from moisture
Keep container tightly closed

Section-16: Other Information


The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all-inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product.

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