Hazards of Confined Space

Hazards of Confined Space can be classified as

1.      Poor lighting and Ventilation.
2.      Oxygen deficiency
3.      Contamination of Toxic and/ or flammable gases
4.      Unexpected activation of machinery or flow.
5.      No way or no time available for exit.
6.      Engulfment (burying) in loose material.
7.      Non specific work practices. 

Other hazards are suffocation, burning, poisoning, and explosion, Drowning, freezing, Crushing, entrapment, scalding, stroke, heat stress, radiation, physical trauma, injury by moving machinery, slipping or falling etc. 

Many fatal and serious accidents have occurred while working in a confined space. Three reasons flammable air mixture, toxic gases and oxygen deficiency are found responsible {or such accidents. Tanks (vessels) with top cover open but all other sides closed, should be considered as a confined Space, because, in such situation persons working inside have to face direct fire, explosion, or toxic exposure and have no other way to run away except the only way of their entry. Therefore doubtlessly and as per above statutory definition, such situation/condition is a confined space. 

One worker died due to solvent fire, one died due to chloroform vapour and two died due to nitrogen (oxygen deficiency) atmosphere in such confined spaces. 

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