Safety Slogans -Environment Health and Safety

A cleaner place is a safer place. 
A little care makes accident rare. 
A little thought will save a lot of accidents. 
A temporary set up – a permanent injury. 
ABC of safety – Always Be Careful.
Accident is a crying shame – work safely. 
Accident is not God gift – they are man made. 
Accident brings tears – safety brings cheers. 
Accident doesn’t happen – they are caused. 
Accident never – happiness ever. 
Accident peeps – when safety sleeps. 
Accident reduction – paves the way for production. 
Accident strikes where negligence thrives. 
Accident usher in – where safety fears to tread. 
Accidents can strike any time. 
Accidents do not just happen, they are caused. 
Act safely today for a glorious tomorrow. 
Action if hasty – does not lead to safety. 
Adherence to safety rules is our religion. 
Adopt safety – avoid suffering. 
Alert today – alive tomorrow. 
Always alert – accident avert. 
An accident can be costly – it may cost your life. 
An accident can cripple your income. 
An accident shatters lives. Safety makes life better. 
An accident to you can hurt those you love. 
An ounce of forethought is a ton of safety. 
Avoid unsafe tools – obey safety rules

Safety Slogans

Safety...Do It For Family 
Safety Is a Race We Can All Win 
Our Job Is Anchored In Safety 
Safety Is a Frame Of Mind, Get The Picture 
Safety Starts With "s" But Begins With "You" 
 Use Safety As a Vital Tool, At Work It's The "Golden Rule" Forgot 
              Your Hearing Protection?  Forget About Hearing! 
Put Safety Into Action -- Stay Out Of Traction! 
Safety Never Takes a Holiday 
Life Did Not Begin By Accident. Don't End It As One. 
Unsafe Acts Will Keep You In Stitches.
Safety Is a State Of Mind --- Accidents Are An Absence Of Mind

HAZOP Studies

HAZOP 
          in chemical synthesis, especially with organic chemicals, identification of process hazard is a complex situation because the same chemical may behave differently under varied Temperature, pressure, pH conditions, stoichiometric compositions &  even its impurity profile
          The need to identify hidden hazards is therefore essential for safety.
          Some of methods used for Risk Analysis are as follows

HAZOP-Various Techniques For Hazard Identification
METHOD
PRINCIPLE
       Safety Review (“What if)?”
       Review of components of the process by a Multidisciplinary team
       Hazard and operability Studies
       Detection of causes and effects of deviations by the use of defined guide words
       Action error analysis
       Detection of critical human operating errors
       Failure modes, effects and Consequence analysis
       As above but for multiple components
       Fault tree analysis
       Deductive description of events leading from failure of components to a hazardous situation
       Events tree analysis 
       Inductive determination of pathways of Disturbances having led to hazardous situation.
Dow fire and explosion and Toxicity index
Determination of probable damage resulting from an accident in a process plant
       Effects models
       Determination of physical damage from Emission, heat radiation, explosions
       Vulnerability models
       Determination of effects on man and the environment of emissions, heat & explosions

HAZOP Definition:
         HAZOP is  defined as a technique for application of a formal systematic critical examination to process & engineering intentions of new or existing facilities to identiffy hazard potentialof mal-operation or malfunction of individual items of equipment & their consequential effects on the facility as a whole.
         The technique centers on the use of “guide words” which are applied to design intentions to generate notional deviations. The design intention tells us what the equipment is expected to do. The “images” of deviations generated by the use of guide words stimulate an imaginative yet systematic search, by a design team, for possible hazards & suggests its control mechanism.

HAZOP GUIDEWORDS
GUIDEWORDS
MEANINGS
COMMENTS
NO
The complete negation but of these intentions
No part of the intentions is achieved nothing else happens.
LESS or MORE
Quantitative decreases or increases
These refer to quantities + properties such has flow rates and temperature as activities like “HEAT” and “REACT
AS WELL AS
A qualitative increase
All the design and operating intentions are achieved together with some additional activity
PART OF
A qualitative decrease
Only some of the intentions are achieved, Some are not
REVERSE
The logical opposite of the intention
This is mostly applicable to activities for example reverse flow of chemical reaction. It can also be applied to substances, e.g.. ‘POISON’ instead of ‘ANTIDOTE’ or ‘D’ instead of ‘L’ optical isomers
OTHER THAN
Complete substitution
No part of the original intention is achieved. Something quite different happens

Hazop Prerequisites
          Current P& I Diagram
          Pneumatic circuit of Control system
          Fail safe position of control valves
          Current operating procedures
          Current MSDS of raw reactants, solvents, catalysts, by-product & product
          Current safety test results (DTA, Induction time etc.)

Procedure For Hazop Studies
          Procedure consists of followings:
Ø  Define objectives & scope
           To check a design
          To obtain list of questions to be put to a supplier
          To check current operating instructions
          To improve technical safety design of existing facilities
Ø  Select the Team
Ø  Prepare for the study
Ø  Carryout the examination
Ø  Follow up
Ø  Record & Results
HAZOP  TEAM
For new projects( Project in charge-Leader, Production in charge, maintenance in charge,  instrumentation engineer, R&D in charge/ representative & EHS Manager/ officer- Secretary
Hazop Procedure
1.      Select a Vessel
2.      Explain the general intentions of the vessel & its lines
3.      Select a line as per operating procedure
4.      Exxplain intention of the line
5.      Apply a Guideword
6.      Develop Meaningful deviation
7.      Examine the possible causes
8.      Examine  consequences
9.      Detect hazard or operating problem
10.  Make suitable Record
11.  Repeat 6-11 for all meaningful deviations derived from the guideword
12.  Repeat 5-11 for all guidewords
13.  Mark line as having been examined.
14.  Repeat 3-13 for each line
15.  Select an auxiliary (e. g. Heating system, Stirring etc)
16.  Explaain intention of the auxiliary
17.  Repeat 5-12 for all auxiliary
18.  Mark auxiliary as having been completed.
19.  Repeat 15-18 for all the auxiliaries.
20.  Explain intention of the vessel
21.  Repeat 5-12 for all vessel
22.  Mark vessel as completed
23.  Repeat 1-22 for  all vessel on Flow-sheet
24.  Mark Flow-sheet as completed.
25.  Repeat 1-24 for all Flow-sheets.
HAZOP-OTHER SALIENT ISSUES
          Where & how do we consider to identify hazard associated with sudden failure of next reactor, in case of in-situ processing.
          Where & how do we consider to identify hazard associated with sudden Process Interruptions due to breakdown lasting a few days?
HAZOP- SHORTCOMINGS
          Lengthy procedures & time consuming.
          Efficiency depends from group to group
          The studies yield only qualitative output
          Does not consider probability.
          Does not provide any basis for comparison amongst hazards identified.
          Some supplementary tool is essential.
          HAZAN is complex & necessitates huge data bank
                             What next?

HAZOP Vs RISK
          Risk = Probability x Realization of Hazard Potential
RISK RATING TEMPLE
          FACTORS CONSIDERED
Ø  Basis of identification of critical risk
Ø  Probability Scoring ( Most likely, Likely, Un-likely & Very unlikely)
Ø  Gravity Score(0, 1, 2, 4, 10)
ü  Human Health & Safety-----
ü  Environmental damages----
ü  Costs-----------------------------
ü  Public Media Action----------
ü  Regulatory & Legal Advice-----
Total Score-------------
          Green Zone in Risk Rating Triangle-Low risk
Ø  Only one preventive or protective device is sufficient
          Yellow Zone in Risk Rating Triangle-High risk
Ø  Redundancy in preventive device, in addition to protective device, is must.
          Red Zone in Risk Rating Triangle-Very High risk
Ø  Process, as such, is not acceptable. Needs modification & re-assessment.