Seven Common Accident Causes

Accidents occur for many reasons. In most industries people tend to look for "things" to blame when an accident happens, because it's easier than looking for "root causes," such as those listed below. Consider the underlying accident causes described. Have you been guilty of any of these attitudes or behaviors? If so, you may have not been injured-but next time you may not be so lucky.
  • Taking Shortcuts: Every day we make decisions we hope will make the job faster and more efficient. But do time savers ever risk your own safety, or that of other crew members? Short cuts that reduce your safety on the job are not shortcuts, but an increased chance for injury.
  • Being over Confident: Confidence is a good thing. Overconfidence is too much of a good thing. "It'll never happen to me" is an attitude that can lead to improper procedures, tools, or methods in your work. Any of these can lead to an injury.
  • Starting a Task with Incomplete Instructions: To do the job safely and right the first time you need complete information. Have you ever seen a worker sent to do a job, having been given only a part of the job's instructions? Don't be shy about asking for explanations about work procedures and safety precautions. It isn't dumb to ask questions; it's dumb not to.
  • Poor Housekeeping: When clients, managers or safety professionals walk through your work site, housekeeping is an accurate indicator of everyone's attitude about quality, production and safety. Poor housekeeping creates hazards of all types. A well maintained area sets a standard for others to follow. Good housekeeping involves both pride and safety.
  • Ignoring Safety Procedures: Purposely failing to observe safety procedures can endanger you and your co-workers. You are being paid to follow the company safety policies-not to make your own rules. Being "casual" about safety can lead to a casualty!
  • Mental Distractions from Work: Having a bad day at home and worrying about it at work is a hazardous combination. Dropping your 'mental' guard can pull your focus away from safe work procedures. You can also be distracted when you're busy working and a friend comes by to talk while you are trying to work. Don't become a statistic because you took your eyes off the machine "just for a minute."
  • Failure to Pre-Plan the Work: There is a lot of talk today about Job Safety Analysis. JSA's are an effective way to figure out the smartest ways to work safely and effectively. Being hasty in starting a task or not thinking through the process can put you in harms way. Instead, Plan Your Work and then Work Your Plan!
"It is better to be careful 100 times than to get killed once."


Why dry air makes static electricity more noticeable in winter …..!, and Tips to prevents Electrostatic hazards.

Almost all of us are familiar with static electricity because we can see and feel it in our personal and professional activities.
This problem is enhanced especially in the winter when the air is dry.
On dry winter days, static electricity can build up in our bodies and cause a spark to jump from our bodies to other people's bodies or any conductive objects.
In the winter, air is dry--there's very little water vapor in it. In the summer, air is more humid--it contains more water vapor.
Water is an "electrical conductor"--it makes it easier for electrons to move from one place to another.
Water in the air lets extra electrons on charged objects leak off into the air and find their way back to charged objects that have too few electrons. Humid air helps to "discharge" static electricity this way, so we don't notice it as much in the summer. In the winter, dry air makes it harder for electrons to leak off, so static electricity discharges by crackling sparks.
Indoors, central heating or air conditioning can give very dry conditions which promote static electricity. Heating warms the
air and reduces its humidity. Static shocks are often noticed in cold dry weather, especially when in a centrally heated
environment and may disappear when the weather gets more humid. Static shocks may also be encouraged under air
conditioning in hot weather.
Tips to prevents Electrostatic hazards:
· Ensure all equipment is properly double earthed and it is periodically testing.
· Use earthing and bonding equipments during chemical handling operations.
· Use metal containers, metal transfer pipes for chemicals collection and transfer activities.
· Avoid manual handling of chemicals with bare hands as much as possible.
· Ensure proper ventilation, it can avoid the accumulation of flammable vapors, gases etc… in the workplace.
· Touch the Static discharge pads or any grounded equipment intermittently.

· Wear Cotton clothing, Anti static shoes etc... Do not wear Sweaters, Jerkins, Mufflers and Caps etc…

Anti Static Measures/ Static electricity Controlling measures in Pharma industry

ANTI STATIC MEASURES-TANK FARM
Grounding and Bonding during Transfer of liquids to and fro road
vehicles
1. Solvent Storage tank, Transfer Pump and Solvent tanker must
be grounded individually.
2. Permanent transfer line must be a conductive and jumpers to be
provided to its each flange joint.
3. If the Pump suction line is conductive (metallic) provide
jumpers only for the flange joints.
4. If the pump suction line is non-conductive (HDPE/ Nylon
braided/ Rubber etc…) provide bonding along with non
conductive hose.
ANTI STATIC MEASURES – RECEIVING TANKS
The splashing & impingement on surfaces associated with free
fall of low conductivity liquids are sources of Electro Static
Charge. Free fall should be avoided in tanks either by
arranging for bottom entry of the liquid or by the use of a fill
pipe extending to the bottom of the tank without actually
touching it.
Grounding and Bonding during receiving flammable solvents
into a tank
1. Ground the source tank/ barrel/ equipment.
2. Ground the pump/ charging line.
3. Ground the receiving tank.
4. For effective continuity provide jumpers to each flange
joint of transfer line.
5. If the charging line is conductive (metallic) continuity
jumpers to every flange joint are enough.
6. If the charging line is non-conductive (HDPE/Nylon
braided/ Rubber etc…) also provide bonding along with
non conductive hose.

ANTI STATIC MEASURES-CENTRIFUGE
Grounding and Bonding during feeding material from reactor to centrifuge
1. Reactor and Centrifuges must be grounded (Double earthing).
2. Provide jumpers for all flange joints of this system for effective
continuity.
3. If the feeding line is conductive (metallic) provide jumpers only for the
flange joints.
4. If the feeding line is non-conductive (HDPE/ Nylon braided/ Rubber
etc…) provide bonding alongside of the feeding line.
5. Also inertize the centrifuge before starting the centrifuge and
continue the bleeding until completion of the job.

ANTI STATIC MEASURES – MILLING
Possibility of Static Electricity generation is present in the milling of chemical
powders also. The accumulation of this static charge may leads to Fires and
explosions. By following some simple anti static measures we can prevent the
accidents of static charge accumulation.
1. Ensure that the Equipment is properly grounded (Double earthed).
2. Provide jumpers at the bolt or clamp points, where non-conductive gaskets
present.
3. Provide earth rod/ earth clamp in the container of material to be milled
4. Provide earth rod/ earth clamp in the milled material collection container.
5. Provide the earth provision to the material charging scoop.
6. Use preferably Metal containers and Anti-static polythene bags in this activity.
7. If the containers are metallic provide earth clamp to them. If those are non conductive
like HDPE /PVC keep earth rod into the container
8. Use Anti-static shoe, Cotton apron and appropriate PPE as required.



What is Static Electricity?, How it is creates?, What Are the Hazards of Static Electricity? and How Can Static Electricity Be Controlled?

What is Static Electricity?
Static electricity is the imbalance of positive and negative charges.
_ Why does your hair stand up after you take your hat off?
_ If you walk across a carpet, electrons move from the rug to you. Now you have
extra electrons. Touch a door knob and ZAP! The electrons move from you to the
knob. You get a shock.
How it is creates?
_ It is created when two objects or materials that have been in contact with each
other (or) separated.
_ The generated charges don’t have a path to the ground, they are unable to move
and become “static”.
Why don’t we always get static charge build-up?
_ if charge moves away faster than it is generated, then no problem
_ if charge is generated faster than it can move away then build-up occurs
– High voltages quickly arise
Static electricity is commonly produced when:
_ Liquid flows through a pipe or hose, or though an opening in a pipe or hose
_ Spraying, coating, Blending, Mixing
_ Filling tanks, drums, cans or pails
_ Dry powdered material passes through chutes or pneumatic conveyors
What Are the Hazards of Static Electricity?
_ The main hazard of static electricity is the creation of sparks in an explosive or
flammable atmosphere.
_ Sparks can set off an explosion or fire.
_ The danger is greatest when flammable liquids are being poured or transferred.
How Can Static Electricity Be Controlled?
Some ways to prevent static charges from accumulating on materials are:
Bonding and Grounding: Bonding and grounding are common controls for static
electricity.
Bonding: Connecting two or more conductive objects with a conductor, such as a copper
wire, that equalizes the potential charge between them.
Grounding: Connecting one or more conductive objects directly to the earth using
ground rods.
Humidification: A relative humidity of 60% to 70% at 21°C (70°F) may prevent static
electricity problems. However, there is no guarantee against the accumulation of static
electricity. Therefore, don’t rely solely on humidification as a control measure in areas
where there are flammable liquids, gases, or dusts.
Static collectors: Devices that collect static electricity can be used on moving belts,
plastic film, and similar nonconductive materials. Some examples of static collectors
include: Needle pointed copper combs, Spring copper brushes and Metallic tinsel bars.
Additives: Another control is the use of anti-static additives (as in fuels).
_ The additive increases the conductivity or lowers the resistance of the liquid.
_ It also reduces the time it takes for the static charge to leak through the wall of
the container and to the ground.
Controlling static electricity on people
The human body is a conductor and may need to be grounded
_ Conductive flooring

_ Conductive clothing and footwear