What is Electrical safety?, Effects of flow of electric current on human body and Prevention of electrical accidents

Electrical safety
Electricity is an essential item of use.  While we make extensive use of electricity in the home, office, factory and other places, serious though is required to be given to the dangerous.
The hazards associated with electricity can be broadly classified as below.
·         Electric shock
·         Electric burns
·         Electric fires and explosions,
·         Other such as injuries due to hits, fall striking against due to electricity.
Effects of flow of electric current on human body:-
§  01 - 08 ma    - perceptible but not painful.
§  08 - 15 ma   - painful shock, but muscular control is not lost.
§  15 - 20 ma    - painful shock, muscle control is lost.
§  20 - 50 ma    - service muscular contraction, breathing difficulty.
§   50 -100 ma  - ventricular fibrillation, serious heart condition, may lead to
                            death.
§  200 ma          - clamp down of the heart, severe burns, contraction of
                            chest muscles.     
Causes of electric shock:-
Electric shocks are often caused due to coming in contact with live conductors or accidentally energized equipment.
There can be other reasons as given below.
v  Insulation failure
v  Equipment failure
v  Poor maintenance
v  Wrong work methods
v  Substandard material and workman-ship
v  Unauthorized personnel
v  Lack of training and knowledge
    Cause of electric burns:
o   Contract burns due to contract with live conductors.
o   Flash/arc burns
o   Scattering of vaporized metal- hot metal globules getting
      impinged and embedded deep under the skin.
Cause of electric fires and explosions:
ü  Over loading
ü  Incorrect fuses/protective devices
ü  Poor maintenance
ü  Explosive atmosphere
ü  Static electricity etc
Prevention of electrical accidents:
Ø  All the electrical equipment should be properly earthed.
Ø  Provide low voltage supply as far as possible.
Ø  Provide isolating transformers wherever possible.
Ø  Use double insulated tools.
Ø  Avoid earth leakages.
Ø  Provide over load protection.
Ø  Provide flameproof equipments.
Ø  Provide lightening arrestors.
Ø  Arrange for periodic testing and inspection procedures.
Ø  Follow national standards and codes of practice.
Ø  Observe rules and regulations strictly.
Ø  Arrange for periodic testing and inspection procedures.
Ø  Use personal protective equipment electrical resistant hand gloves  etc.
Ø  Follow electrical isolation tag system.
Ø  Train and educate the personal.
Electric shock treatment:
v  Switch off the power source.
v   If not possible immediately, remove   victim, without, directly, contracting his skin.
v  Start artificial respiration immediately.


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