Safety Performance Indicators


Fatal Accident / Injury

A death resulting from an occupational injury or disease/illness and identified within the reporting period.

Serious Accident / Injury

Any injury which results in permanent loss of any part or section of a body or the use of any part or section of a body, or the permanent loss of or injury to the sight or hearing or any permanent physical incapacity or the fracture of any bone or one or more joints or bones of any phalanges of hand or foot.

Reportable Accident

Any accident / injury which causes a loss of time for more than 48 hours as per The Factories Act 1948 or more than 72 hours as per The Mines Act 1956.

Non-Reportable Accident

Any accident / injury which causes a loss of time ranging from 24 to 48 hours as per The Factories Act 1948 or 2 to 72 hours as per The Mines Act 1956.

First-aid injury

An injury, which requires medical treatment only and does not have any loss time extending beyond the day or shift during which the accident occurred.

Loss Time Injuries (LTI)

An injury / accident forcing the employee to remain away from his / her work beyond the day of accident.

Man-Hours Worked
                                            
Total man-hours worked during the month calculated as man-days physically present at workplace multiplied by 8 (8=Working hours per day).

Man-Hours lost

These are total man-hours lost during the month due to loss time injuries / accidents calculated as man-days lost multiplied by 8 (8=Working hours per day).


Calculations

Loss Time Injury Frequency Rate (LTIFR)

The number of lost time injuries (LTI)* per one million hours worked.

     Number of loss time injuries(Dept+Contractors)
LTIFR = ----------------------------------------------------------------x 1000,000
                        Man-Hours worked (Dept + contractor)

Total Injury Frequency Rate (TIFR)

The number of total injuries per one million hours worked

               Total number of injuries*(Dept+Contractors)
TIFR =  -----------------------------------------------------------    X 1000,000
                  Man-Hours worked (Dept + contractor)

* Total Injuries = Loss Time Injuries + First Aid Injuries


Severity Rate (SR)

The total number of man-days lost per 1000 days worked.

                          Man-days lost(Dept+contractors)
        SR =     ----------------------------------------------------  X 1000
                      Man-days worked (Dept + contractor)

The number of man-days lost for a Fatal accident shall be taken as 6000.


What is Electrical safety?, Effects of flow of electric current on human body and Prevention of electrical accidents

Electrical safety
Electricity is an essential item of use.  While we make extensive use of electricity in the home, office, factory and other places, serious though is required to be given to the dangerous.
The hazards associated with electricity can be broadly classified as below.
·         Electric shock
·         Electric burns
·         Electric fires and explosions,
·         Other such as injuries due to hits, fall striking against due to electricity.
Effects of flow of electric current on human body:-
§  01 - 08 ma    - perceptible but not painful.
§  08 - 15 ma   - painful shock, but muscular control is not lost.
§  15 - 20 ma    - painful shock, muscle control is lost.
§  20 - 50 ma    - service muscular contraction, breathing difficulty.
§   50 -100 ma  - ventricular fibrillation, serious heart condition, may lead to
                            death.
§  200 ma          - clamp down of the heart, severe burns, contraction of
                            chest muscles.     
Causes of electric shock:-
Electric shocks are often caused due to coming in contact with live conductors or accidentally energized equipment.
There can be other reasons as given below.
v  Insulation failure
v  Equipment failure
v  Poor maintenance
v  Wrong work methods
v  Substandard material and workman-ship
v  Unauthorized personnel
v  Lack of training and knowledge
    Cause of electric burns:
o   Contract burns due to contract with live conductors.
o   Flash/arc burns
o   Scattering of vaporized metal- hot metal globules getting
      impinged and embedded deep under the skin.
Cause of electric fires and explosions:
ü  Over loading
ü  Incorrect fuses/protective devices
ü  Poor maintenance
ü  Explosive atmosphere
ü  Static electricity etc
Prevention of electrical accidents:
Ø  All the electrical equipment should be properly earthed.
Ø  Provide low voltage supply as far as possible.
Ø  Provide isolating transformers wherever possible.
Ø  Use double insulated tools.
Ø  Avoid earth leakages.
Ø  Provide over load protection.
Ø  Provide flameproof equipments.
Ø  Provide lightening arrestors.
Ø  Arrange for periodic testing and inspection procedures.
Ø  Follow national standards and codes of practice.
Ø  Observe rules and regulations strictly.
Ø  Arrange for periodic testing and inspection procedures.
Ø  Use personal protective equipment electrical resistant hand gloves  etc.
Ø  Follow electrical isolation tag system.
Ø  Train and educate the personal.
Electric shock treatment:
v  Switch off the power source.
v   If not possible immediately, remove   victim, without, directly, contracting his skin.
v  Start artificial respiration immediately.


Seven Common Accident Causes

Accidents occur for many reasons. In most industries people tend to look for "things" to blame when an accident happens, because it's easier than looking for "root causes," such as those listed below. Consider the underlying accident causes described. Have you been guilty of any of these attitudes or behaviors? If so, you may have not been injured-but next time you may not be so lucky.
  • Taking Shortcuts: Every day we make decisions we hope will make the job faster and more efficient. But do time savers ever risk your own safety, or that of other crew members? Short cuts that reduce your safety on the job are not shortcuts, but an increased chance for injury.
  • Being over Confident: Confidence is a good thing. Overconfidence is too much of a good thing. "It'll never happen to me" is an attitude that can lead to improper procedures, tools, or methods in your work. Any of these can lead to an injury.
  • Starting a Task with Incomplete Instructions: To do the job safely and right the first time you need complete information. Have you ever seen a worker sent to do a job, having been given only a part of the job's instructions? Don't be shy about asking for explanations about work procedures and safety precautions. It isn't dumb to ask questions; it's dumb not to.
  • Poor Housekeeping: When clients, managers or safety professionals walk through your work site, housekeeping is an accurate indicator of everyone's attitude about quality, production and safety. Poor housekeeping creates hazards of all types. A well maintained area sets a standard for others to follow. Good housekeeping involves both pride and safety.
  • Ignoring Safety Procedures: Purposely failing to observe safety procedures can endanger you and your co-workers. You are being paid to follow the company safety policies-not to make your own rules. Being "casual" about safety can lead to a casualty!
  • Mental Distractions from Work: Having a bad day at home and worrying about it at work is a hazardous combination. Dropping your 'mental' guard can pull your focus away from safe work procedures. You can also be distracted when you're busy working and a friend comes by to talk while you are trying to work. Don't become a statistic because you took your eyes off the machine "just for a minute."
  • Failure to Pre-Plan the Work: There is a lot of talk today about Job Safety Analysis. JSA's are an effective way to figure out the smartest ways to work safely and effectively. Being hasty in starting a task or not thinking through the process can put you in harms way. Instead, Plan Your Work and then Work Your Plan!
"It is better to be careful 100 times than to get killed once."


Why dry air makes static electricity more noticeable in winter …..!, and Tips to prevents Electrostatic hazards.

Almost all of us are familiar with static electricity because we can see and feel it in our personal and professional activities.
This problem is enhanced especially in the winter when the air is dry.
On dry winter days, static electricity can build up in our bodies and cause a spark to jump from our bodies to other people's bodies or any conductive objects.
In the winter, air is dry--there's very little water vapor in it. In the summer, air is more humid--it contains more water vapor.
Water is an "electrical conductor"--it makes it easier for electrons to move from one place to another.
Water in the air lets extra electrons on charged objects leak off into the air and find their way back to charged objects that have too few electrons. Humid air helps to "discharge" static electricity this way, so we don't notice it as much in the summer. In the winter, dry air makes it harder for electrons to leak off, so static electricity discharges by crackling sparks.
Indoors, central heating or air conditioning can give very dry conditions which promote static electricity. Heating warms the
air and reduces its humidity. Static shocks are often noticed in cold dry weather, especially when in a centrally heated
environment and may disappear when the weather gets more humid. Static shocks may also be encouraged under air
conditioning in hot weather.
Tips to prevents Electrostatic hazards:
· Ensure all equipment is properly double earthed and it is periodically testing.
· Use earthing and bonding equipments during chemical handling operations.
· Use metal containers, metal transfer pipes for chemicals collection and transfer activities.
· Avoid manual handling of chemicals with bare hands as much as possible.
· Ensure proper ventilation, it can avoid the accumulation of flammable vapors, gases etc… in the workplace.
· Touch the Static discharge pads or any grounded equipment intermittently.

· Wear Cotton clothing, Anti static shoes etc... Do not wear Sweaters, Jerkins, Mufflers and Caps etc…

Anti Static Measures/ Static electricity Controlling measures in Pharma industry

ANTI STATIC MEASURES-TANK FARM
Grounding and Bonding during Transfer of liquids to and fro road
vehicles
1. Solvent Storage tank, Transfer Pump and Solvent tanker must
be grounded individually.
2. Permanent transfer line must be a conductive and jumpers to be
provided to its each flange joint.
3. If the Pump suction line is conductive (metallic) provide
jumpers only for the flange joints.
4. If the pump suction line is non-conductive (HDPE/ Nylon
braided/ Rubber etc…) provide bonding along with non
conductive hose.
ANTI STATIC MEASURES – RECEIVING TANKS
The splashing & impingement on surfaces associated with free
fall of low conductivity liquids are sources of Electro Static
Charge. Free fall should be avoided in tanks either by
arranging for bottom entry of the liquid or by the use of a fill
pipe extending to the bottom of the tank without actually
touching it.
Grounding and Bonding during receiving flammable solvents
into a tank
1. Ground the source tank/ barrel/ equipment.
2. Ground the pump/ charging line.
3. Ground the receiving tank.
4. For effective continuity provide jumpers to each flange
joint of transfer line.
5. If the charging line is conductive (metallic) continuity
jumpers to every flange joint are enough.
6. If the charging line is non-conductive (HDPE/Nylon
braided/ Rubber etc…) also provide bonding along with
non conductive hose.

ANTI STATIC MEASURES-CENTRIFUGE
Grounding and Bonding during feeding material from reactor to centrifuge
1. Reactor and Centrifuges must be grounded (Double earthing).
2. Provide jumpers for all flange joints of this system for effective
continuity.
3. If the feeding line is conductive (metallic) provide jumpers only for the
flange joints.
4. If the feeding line is non-conductive (HDPE/ Nylon braided/ Rubber
etc…) provide bonding alongside of the feeding line.
5. Also inertize the centrifuge before starting the centrifuge and
continue the bleeding until completion of the job.

ANTI STATIC MEASURES – MILLING
Possibility of Static Electricity generation is present in the milling of chemical
powders also. The accumulation of this static charge may leads to Fires and
explosions. By following some simple anti static measures we can prevent the
accidents of static charge accumulation.
1. Ensure that the Equipment is properly grounded (Double earthed).
2. Provide jumpers at the bolt or clamp points, where non-conductive gaskets
present.
3. Provide earth rod/ earth clamp in the container of material to be milled
4. Provide earth rod/ earth clamp in the milled material collection container.
5. Provide the earth provision to the material charging scoop.
6. Use preferably Metal containers and Anti-static polythene bags in this activity.
7. If the containers are metallic provide earth clamp to them. If those are non conductive
like HDPE /PVC keep earth rod into the container
8. Use Anti-static shoe, Cotton apron and appropriate PPE as required.



What is Static Electricity?, How it is creates?, What Are the Hazards of Static Electricity? and How Can Static Electricity Be Controlled?

What is Static Electricity?
Static electricity is the imbalance of positive and negative charges.
_ Why does your hair stand up after you take your hat off?
_ If you walk across a carpet, electrons move from the rug to you. Now you have
extra electrons. Touch a door knob and ZAP! The electrons move from you to the
knob. You get a shock.
How it is creates?
_ It is created when two objects or materials that have been in contact with each
other (or) separated.
_ The generated charges don’t have a path to the ground, they are unable to move
and become “static”.
Why don’t we always get static charge build-up?
_ if charge moves away faster than it is generated, then no problem
_ if charge is generated faster than it can move away then build-up occurs
– High voltages quickly arise
Static electricity is commonly produced when:
_ Liquid flows through a pipe or hose, or though an opening in a pipe or hose
_ Spraying, coating, Blending, Mixing
_ Filling tanks, drums, cans or pails
_ Dry powdered material passes through chutes or pneumatic conveyors
What Are the Hazards of Static Electricity?
_ The main hazard of static electricity is the creation of sparks in an explosive or
flammable atmosphere.
_ Sparks can set off an explosion or fire.
_ The danger is greatest when flammable liquids are being poured or transferred.
How Can Static Electricity Be Controlled?
Some ways to prevent static charges from accumulating on materials are:
Bonding and Grounding: Bonding and grounding are common controls for static
electricity.
Bonding: Connecting two or more conductive objects with a conductor, such as a copper
wire, that equalizes the potential charge between them.
Grounding: Connecting one or more conductive objects directly to the earth using
ground rods.
Humidification: A relative humidity of 60% to 70% at 21°C (70°F) may prevent static
electricity problems. However, there is no guarantee against the accumulation of static
electricity. Therefore, don’t rely solely on humidification as a control measure in areas
where there are flammable liquids, gases, or dusts.
Static collectors: Devices that collect static electricity can be used on moving belts,
plastic film, and similar nonconductive materials. Some examples of static collectors
include: Needle pointed copper combs, Spring copper brushes and Metallic tinsel bars.
Additives: Another control is the use of anti-static additives (as in fuels).
_ The additive increases the conductivity or lowers the resistance of the liquid.
_ It also reduces the time it takes for the static charge to leak through the wall of
the container and to the ground.
Controlling static electricity on people
The human body is a conductor and may need to be grounded
_ Conductive flooring

_ Conductive clothing and footwear

Health and safety procedure/Guidelines for Painting

Health and Safety Guidelines for Painting

In industry, the most popular method of applying paint is to spray it on, using compressed air, a high velocity airless spray or an electrostatic applicator.  Paint can also be applied with brushes.  The material itself is the primary hazard when painting. Painting may expose you potentially dangerous chemicals which may damage your health. This guide outlines some of the hazards associated with painting and provides information on how to work safely while painting.

Choose paint materials with safety in mind.  Never use materials which are unlabeled their contents cannot be determined.  Always follow the safety recommendations for the material being used.

Health hazards

Overexposure to a substance means too much has been breathed in, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. The possible effects of overexposure to paint and the chemicals it contains vary according to the type of paint. Some health problems caused by overexposure to paint material are:
q  drowsiness;
q  dizziness/light headedness;
q  disorientation;
q  nausea/vomiting;
q  eye and throat irritation;
q  dermatitis;
q  general allergic response such as hives;
q  asthma-like wheezing with tightness in the chest;
q  heavy metal poisoning (lead, chromium, nickel and cadmium); or
q  nerve, kidney or liver damage.
A wide variety of ingredients are used in paints and thinners. These chemicals are not found in all paints, but you have probably come into contact with some of them at one time or other. The following is a list of common ingredients of paints and thinners:

Pigments

q  white lead
q  red/brown iron oxide
q  chromium oxide
q  iron blue
q  cadmium yellow
q  lead powder

Solvents – thinners

q  toluene
q  xylene
q  carbon tetrachloride
q  perchloroethylene
q  iopropyl alcohol
q  cyclohexanol
q  n-amyl acetate
q  methyl ethyl ketone
q  cyclohexanone
q  methylene chloride

Resins

q  isocyanates (contained in urethane resins)
q  epichlorohydrin (contained in epoxy resins)
You may already be familiar with the paints you use regularly, but do you know their possible harmful effects? Ask for the Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) (see below) for each paint. These are available from the manufacturer or paint supplier. The MSDS will describe the possible hazards and what precautions are needed.  All of the above listed ingredients have standards for worker exposure.

Spray Painting Safety

Spray painting is a common and effective way to protect and beautify parts, products, vehicles, and buildings. Spray painting allows coverage of large areas with even coats of primer, paint, sealers, and other coatings. However, workers in spray painting operations need to recognize and guard against the hazard associated with spray painting processes.
Hazardous chemicals in coatings and solvents can enter the body several ways. Workers can inhale chemical vapors from spraying, absorb the chemical by skin contact or inject the chemical with high pressure spray painting equipment.
As proper ventilation is important when working with paint coatings, a spray booth is an excellent way to remove spray paint vapors and debris from a worker’s breathing zone. Many coatings contain flammable substances that are aerosolized when sprayed through powered equipment and without proper ventilation, such as in a spray booth, these vapors can build up and create an explosion and fire danger. But to provide maximum protection, the spray booth must be properly maintained, including regular cleaning of filters and overspray. And to prevent sparking a flammable substance, smoking and other sources of flame near spray painting operations should be prohibited and tools should be properly rated and grounded for work in a spray painting area.
Because much of the equipment used for spray painting and surface preparation uses compressed air, workers should be aware that noise can be a risk, so should wear hearing protection when working with air powered tools.

How to Control Health Hazards

Following a few sensible rules can help to reduce exposure to chemical hazards.

Environmental Control

Whenever possible, painting or priming operations should be done in a spray booth or room. These areas have been designed to reduce exposure to paint vapors and additives – use them correctly.  You should make sure that the ventilation in the spray booth or room is adequately maintained and working properly.
Before using the spay booth or room:
q  turn on the ventilation system,
q  check the spray booth filters and change if necessary, and
q  turn on the make-up air unit.
When painting in an enclosed space (a room):
q  provide outside ventilation air with fans or open windows,
q  turn off ignition sources like wall heaters
When painting:
q  follow the equipment manufacturer’s instructions,
q  avoid using plastic drop cloths on the floor (slip hazard)
q  never point a spray gun at yourself or anyone else,
q  position yourself so the piece you are spraying is between you and the exhaust fan,
q  do not over spray, and
q  use appropriate personal protection.

Personal protection

One positive step you can take to ensure continuing good health is to use personal protective equipment. Here is a brief description of some of the protective equipment available.

Respirators

Two types of respirators, the air-purifying and the atmosphere supplying, are commonly used in spray painting.  IMPORTANT – you MUST use the correct type of respirator for the job being done and the chemicals being used.
The air-purifying type of respirator should be used only during exposure to those specific chemicals, or groups of chemicals, described on the respirator cartridge. These cartridges are good only for a limited time and must be replaced with new ones when:
q  you can smell vapors in the mask,
q  they become difficult to breathe through, or
q  they have been used for their specific lifetime.
The atmosphere-supplying type of respirator must be used in some paint spraying operations, particularly with urethane paints or when painting in a confined space e.g. inside a tank.
REMEMBER — whichever respirator is used, it must FIT properly to ensure adequate protection (check the manufacturer’s instructions). Respirator maintenance and cleaning is important. No one wants to use a dirty, leaky respirator which has been worn previously by someone else. Keep your respirator in good condition by cleaning and sanitizing it regularly. Store it in a clean place. Check it for pliability and signs of deterioration before you wear it. If the respirator needs repair, use only the manufacturer’s recommended replacement parts. With a little thought, and a small amount of effort, your respirator will protect you for a long time.

Eye and Hearing Protection

Without good eyesight you cannot do your job properly — so why risk eye damage, or loss of eyesight from solvent spray or splashing. Wear your SAFETY GOGGLES to protect your eyes from paint materials as well as the particulates created during sanding and grinding.
Some painting equipment such as grinders and compressors create loud noise.  Hearing protection is required when noise levels exceed 85 db. 

Protective clothing

Some of the chemicals you work with can injure skin or cause dermatitis. Coveralls and gloves prevent these chemicals from coming into contact with your skin, reducing the risk of damage. Wear your coveralls and gloves whenever working with chemicals. Clean your gloves and wash your coveralls regularly to prevent chemicals from accumulating, especially around the cuffs where they can easily come into contact with your skin. As an additional protective measure, use BARRIER CREAMS on your hands, face and neck. Check to make use you have the correct barrier cream for the chemicals being used.

Fire and explosion hazards

Because of the danger of fire and explosion where paints which contain flammable solvents are being used, care should be taken to remove all potential sources of ignition before starting work. This means naked flames, cutting and welding torches, gas fired heaters and materials which may give off sparks, whether electrical, mechanical, friction or static, and there must be no smoking. Make sure the correct types of fire extinguishers are available at the work site.
REMEMBER different types of fires require different types of extinguishers.
IMPORTANT:  Flammable materials are required to be stored is flammable materials storage cabinets.   Many Paint and solvents are flammable materials.

Dust and Preparation

Many painting projects require preparation of the materials to be painted.  Preparation often involves sanding of the surface which creates a health hazard if dust masks are not worn.  Ideally dust collection systems should be used to prevent large amounts of small particulates from entering the air.
Sanding and scraping of old paint may hold additional hazards if the old paint contains lead. 

Things to do and not to do before painting

q  DO Post “No Smoking” and “No Welding” signs
q  DO Remove portable lamps and heaters from the area
q  DO Make sure painting is done away from naked flames, sparks, non-explosion proof motors or any other source of ignition.
q  DO Check the ventilation system to make sure it is on and working correctly.
q  DO Electrically ground all spraying equipment
q  DO Make sure approved respirator, eye goggles and any other protective equipment required for the job are worn
q  DON’T Smoke

q  DON’T Take more paint out of the store room than you can use in one day.